Understanding Types of Lubricants: Base Oil Groups

Lubrication Mechanisms

All the surfaces in nature are tough, at least microscopically (or maybe at atomic level). When two hard surfaces slide against every other (or roll) the asperities of the surfaces come close to each other and interlock, adhere and generate friction. The intention of any lubrication approach is to split the rubbing surfaces through a lubricant layer, food grease which prevents (or as a minimum minimizes) direct touch of the bodies as shown in the parent beneath. By choosing suitable lubricant, the friction and put on of the substances can be controlled.

Types of Lubricants

Lubricants may be categorised with the aid of their nation into following groups:


liquid lubricants: all liquid lubricants, including mineral, natural, artificial oils, emulsions, and so forth.

Strong lubricants: all lubricants in stable shape, such as powders, coatings and composites (graphite, polytetrafluorethylene, Molybdenum disulfide, and many others.)

gaseous lubricants: generally its air, but can be any other gasoline.

Semisolid lubricants: greases, normally consists of a cleaning soap emulsified with mineral or vegetable oil.

Lubricants can also be categorised by using their fundamental feature:


Anti-put on additives (AW): reduces wear with the aid of the increase of protective layer at the surfaces (zinc dialkyldithiophosphate).

Extreme stress components (EP): protects the components from seizure through the formation of the coating at the surfaces (graphite, molybdenum disulfide).

Friction modifiers: used to control friction, generally product of stable debris (graphite, molybdenum disulfide, tungsten disulfide, and so forth.).

Corrosion inhibitors: protects the surfaces from the attack of chemically active substances, which include oxygen, via developing a corrosion resistant layer.

Viscosity Index Improvers: used to prevent or minimize a lower of the viscosity index of lubricants at better temperatures.

Oil lubricants are also frequently labeled into mineral (crude oil) and synthetic (man made or altered, with described shape) oils.


Liquid Lubricants

The liquid lubricants can be divided into the following agencies:


Hydrocarbon base oils

Natural oils and fats

Non-hydrocarbon synthetic oils

Water-containing lubricant

Properties of Liquid Lubricants